Entrepreneurial Education, Gender and Job Creation

It is assumed that there are gender differences in entrepreneurial and growth intentions. Zarrouk and co. investigated data collected in 2016 among students-entrepreneurs from Grenoble Ecole de Management and Grenoble Alpes University. They controlled variables to reduce the held assumptions about female entrepreneurs in terms of childhood/family environement, prior work experience, entrepreneurial education, and entrepreneurial experience. The results confirm the assumption about entrepreneurial intentions: women had lower entrepreneruial intentions than men. However, those who started their business were as growth-oriented as men. Intrestengly, none of the control variables (except entrepreneruial education) were significantly related to growth employment. In other words, results suggest that entrepreneurial education leads to job creations.

Future studies are encouraged to challenge the remaining assumptions:

1. Female entrepreneurs differ in some personality traits such as need for achievement, locus of control, risk taking and gender identity.

2. Female entrepreneurs have career advancement issues related to their childhood and family environment.

3. Female entrepreneurs start their businesses to escape job dissatisfaction or because they are pushed by incubators.

4. Female entrepreneurs are more likely to become divorced/separated or find poor spousal support.

5. Female entrepreneurs concentrate in small size industries/businesses.

6. Female entrepreneurs work less hours than men do.

7. Female entrepreneurs have different work values than their male counterparts.

8. Female entrepreneurs have different managerial styles and are taught to be different.

9. Female entrepreneurs face internal and external obstacles.

10. Female entrepreneurs evaluate poorly their current self-employment experience.

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