Dernière mise à jour : 30 oct. 2020
"Small is beautiful" the 70s Wall Street slogan was impactful to anchor in our perception that the best wealth, employment and value creators are small businesses. In 1986, Bowen and Hisrich explained firms small size using career advancement theory, and called future studies to further explain gender differences in firm size. In 2018, Zarrouk and co. used Kauffman dataset, following US firms from 2004 to 2011. The results challenge the assumption that women work less hours than men. Findings yet confirm that female-led businesses concentrate in small size industries. To explain this concentration, we continue challenging these remaining assumptions:
1. Female entrepreneurs differ in some personality traits such as need for achievement, locus of control, risk taking and gender identity.
2. Female entrepreneurs have career advancement issues related to their childhood and family environment. Their fathers are their role models not their mothers.
3. Female entrepreneurs start their businesses to escape job dissatisfaction or because they are pushed by incubators.
4. Female entrepreneurs are more likely to become divorced/separated or find poor spousal support.
5. Female entrepreneurs concentrate in small size industries/businesses.
6. Female entrepreneurs work less hours than men do.
7. Female entrepreneurs have different work values than their male counterparts.
8. Female entrepreneurs have different managerial styles and are taught to be different.
9. Female entrepreneurs face internal and external obstacles.
10. Female entrepreneurs evaluate poorly their current self-employment experience.